Major Trade Documents


Purchase Order

  •  the written offer to exporter/supplier formally stating all terms and conditions of a proposed transaction by the importer/purchaser


CMR Document

  •  “Contrat de Transport International de Marchandises par Route“ Document
  •  an international consignment note used by drivers, operators and forwarders
  •  alike that govern the responsibilities and liabilities of the parties to a contract for the carriage of goods by road internationally


Commercial Invoice

  •  formal demand note for payment issued by the exporter/supplier to the importer/purchaser for goods sold under a sales contract 


Airway Bill (AWB)

  •  a kind of waybill used for the carriage of goods by air
  •  issued by airline company


Packing List

  •  the list with detailed packing information of the goods shipped
  •  issued by the exporter/supplier


Billing of Ladding (B/L)

  •  the contract between the shipper of the goods and the carrier.
  •  issued by shipping company usually 


Documentary Credit (D/C)

  •  same as “letter of credit (L/C)”, which popular in US and Asia
  •  facilitate international payments by providing security for both the exporter/supplier and the importer/purchaser
  •  the exporter/supplier receives an advance assurance of payment upon presentation of documents conforming to the terms and conditions of the letter of credit, and the importer/purchaser is assured that the bank will not pay unless the exporter/supplier has actually submitted documents strictly complying with the documentary credit
  •  issued by bank in usual
  •  International documentary credit practice is governed by a set of rules produced by ICC


Multimodal Bill of Lading (FBL)

  •  a type of international transport documents covering two or more modes of transport, such as shipping by road and by sea
  •  issued by the exporter


Certificate of Origin

  •  to certify the place of manufacture of the exported goods to meet the requirements of the importing authorities
  •  often required by customs authorities of a country 
  •  usually issued by an official organization in the country of origin


Inspection Certificate

  •  issued by an independent surveyor (inspection company) or the exporter on the specifications of the shipment, including quality, quantity, and / or price
  •  pre-shipment inspection is required for importation of goods into many developing countries 
  •  required by certain purchasers and countries